Sandy Caincross

Sandy Cairncross - OBE PhD FRSA MICE MCIWEM


Professor of Environmental Health



+44 (0)207 927 2211
+44 (0)207 636 7843
Room 418
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Keppel Street
London WC1E 7HT

Background


A public health engineer by profession, and an epidemiologist by vocation, Dr Sandy Cairncross is interested in environmental interventions for disease control and their technical and policy aspects. Most of his career has been spent in research and teaching, and about a third in developing countries implementing water, sanitation and public health programmes.

With a PhD in soil mechanics from the University of Cambridge, he built water supplies in Lesotho, Southern Africa before spending a year at LSHTM in 1977. During this time he worked on several books, including a textbook on environmental health engineering in the tropics which is now in its second edition. He then spent seven years as a water and sanitation engineer for the Government of newly-independent Mozambique, before returning to LSHTM in 1984.

From 1992 to 1995 he was on leave of absence with Unicef in Ouagadougou, West Africa, where with WHO he set up an interagency technical team to support national Guinea worm eradication programmes in the region. Here, he leads a research group working on environmental health in developing countries. His group's work at LSHTM has involved studies of the health impact of environmental interventions such as water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion, and of operational and policy aspects of water supply, low-cost sanitation, and hygiene.

He has advised WHO, Unicef, the World Bank, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and many other agencies on water and environmental health. He is an editor of Tropical Medicine & International Health.


Teaching/Research

Sandy is co-organiser of a study unit on Tropical Environmental Health, as well as contributing to a number of other courses and study units on topics such as water & sanitation, PHC and Guinea worm eradication.

Sandy is Research Director of the SHARE Research Programme Consortium, whose aim is applied research on sanitation & hygiene, with partners WaterAid, Shack Dwellers International, the International Institute for Environment and Development, and the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.


He is also Deputy Director of the African SNOWS Consortium to build research capacity of six African universities in water, sanitation & environmental health.


For further information, see www.hygienecentral.org.uk, www.shareresearch.org, and www.africansnows.org


Research areas:

  • Environment
  • Hygiene
  • Sanitaiton
  • Water


Disciplines:


  • Epidemiology
  • Operational research
  • Policy analysis


Publications

Impact on diarrhoea of a city-wide sanitation programme in Northeast Brazil
Barreto, ML; Genser, B; Strina, A; Teixeira, MG; Assis, AMO; Rego, RF; Teles, CA; Prado, MS; Matos, SMA; Santos, DN; dos Santos, LA; Cairncross, S.;
Lancet, 2007; 370(9599):1622-1628

Water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion (Chapter 41)
Cairncross, S.; Valdmanis, V.
in 'Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries' Jamison, D. T.; Breman, J. G.; Measham, A. R; et al(2006) The World Bank (Washington DC) :771-792

Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies
Ezzati, M.; Utzinger, J.; Cairncross, S.; Cohen, A. J.; Singer, B. H.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2005; 59(1):15-22

Editorial: Water supply and sanitation: some misconceptions
Cairncross, S.
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2003; 8(3):193-5

Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review
Curtis, V.; Cairncross, S.
Lancet Infect Dis, 2003; 3(5):275-81

Childhood diarrhea and observed hygiene behavior in Salvador, Brazil
Strina, A.; Cairncross, S.; Barreto, M. L.; Larrea, C.; Prado, M. S.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 2003; 157(11):1032-1038

Health, Environment and the Burden of Disease; a Guidance Note
Cairncross, S.; O'Neill, D.; McCoy, A.; Sethi, D.
Department for International Development (London) 2003

Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative
Cairncross, S.; Muller, R.; Zagaria, N.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 2002; 15(2):223-46 → View all Professor Sandy Cairncross's publications


Journal Article - Original Research

Water, sanitation, hygiene and enteric infections in children.

Brown, J. ; Cairncross, S. ; Ensink, J.H. ;
Arch Dis Child, 2013;
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.657


Hygiene intervention reduces contamination of weaning food in Bangladesh

Islam, M. S.; Mahmud, Z. H.; Gope, P. S.; Zaman, R. U.; Hossain, Z.; Mondal, D.; Sharker, M. A.; Islam, K.; Jahan, H.; Bhuiya, A.; Endtz, H. P.; Cravioto, A.; Curtis, V.; Toure, O.; Cairncross, S.
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2013; 18(3):250-258
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.328


Piloting an intervention to improve microbiological food safety in Peri-Urban Mali.

Touré, O. ; Coulibaly, S. ; Arby, A. ; Maiga, F. ; Cairncross, S. ;
Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2013; 216(2):138-45
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.64


Why is dracunculiasis eradication taking so long?

Cairncross, S. ; Tayeh, A. ; Korkor, A.S. ;
Trends Parasitol, 2012;
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 4.298


Motivations and Challenges of Community-Based Surveillance Volunteers in the Northern Region of Ghana

Dil, Y.; Strachan, D.; Cairncross, S.; Korkor, A. S.; Hill, Z.
Journal of Community Health, 2012; 37(6):1192-1198
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 1.392


Promoting Health and Advancing Development through Improved Housing in Low-Income Settings.

Haines, A.; Bruce, N.; Cairncross, S.; Davies, M.; Greenland, K.; Hiscox, A.; Lindsay, S.; Lindsay, T.; Satterthwaite, D.; Wilkinson, P.;
J Urban Health, 2012;
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.205


The use of action research for assessment and improvement of integrated practices on drinking-water quality surveillance: potentialities and challenges

Queiroz, A. C. L.; Cardoso, L. S. D.; Heller, L.; Cairncross, S.
Engenharia Sanitaria E Ambiental, 2012; 17(3):277-286
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009):


Factors associated with rotavirus diarrhoea in children living in a socially diverse urban centre in Brazil

Strina, A.; Rodrigues, L. C.; Cairncross, S.; Ferrer, S. R.; Fialho, A. M.; Leite, J. P. G.; Ribeiro, H. C.; Barreto, M. L.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2012; 106(7):445-451
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.553


Impact of a City-Wide Sanitation Programme in Northeast Brazil on Intestinal Parasites Infection in Young Children.

Barreto, M.L.; Genser, B.; Strina, A.; Teixeira, M.G.; Assis, A.M.; Rego, R.F.; Teles, C.A.; Prado, M.S.; Matos, S.; Alcântara-Neves, N.M.; Cairncross, S.;
Environ Health Perspect, 2011; 118(11):1637-42
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 6.191


Personal notice.

Cairncross, S. ;
Trop Med Int Health, 2011; 16(5):659
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.328


Demand for sanitation in Salvador, Brazil: A hybrid choice approach.

Santos, A.C.; Roberts, J.A.; Barreto, M.L.; Cairncross, S.;
Soc Sci Med, 2011; 72(8):1325-32
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.71


Epidemiological methods in diarrhoea studies--an update.

Schmidt, W.P. ; Arnold, B.F. ; Boisson, S. ; Genser, B. ; Luby, S.P. ; Barreto, M.L. ; Clasen, T. ; Cairncross, S. ;
Int J Epidemiol, 2011; 40(6):1678-92
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 5.262


Response to Wang and Hunter: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Association between Self-Reported Diarrheal Disease and Distance from Home to Water Source.

Subaiya, S. ; Cairncross, S. ;
Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2011; 84(3):504
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.795


HETEROGENEITY OF RISK FACTORS OF DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION IN AN URBAN SETTING

Teixeira, M.G.; Barreto, M.L.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, L.D.A.; Morato, V.; Vasconcelos, P.F.; Cairncross, S.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2011; 65:A371-A372
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 3.043


Improving microbiological food Safety in pen-urban Mali; an experimental study

Toure, O.; Coulibaly, S.; Arby, A.; Maiga, F.; Cairncross, S.
Food Control, 2011; 22(10):1565-1572
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.463


Hygiene, sanitation, and water: forgotten foundations of health.

Bartram, J.; Cairncross, S.;
PLoS Med, 2010; 7(11):e1000367
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 13.05


Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: What Needs to Be Done?

Cairncross, S.; Bartram, J.; Cumming, O.; Brocklehurst, C.;
PLoS Med, 2010; 7(11):e1000365
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 13.05


Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea.

Cairncross, S.; Hunt, C.; Boisson, S.; Bostoen, K.; Curtis, V.; Fung, I.C.; Schmidt, W.P.;
Int J Epidemiol, 2010; 39 Suppl 1:i193-205
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 5.262


Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoea.

Clasen, T.F.; Bostoen, K.; Schmidt, W.P.; Boisson, S.; Fung, I.C.; Jenkins, M.W.; Scott, B.; Sugden, S.; Cairncross, S.;
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2010; 6:CD007180
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 5.653 .


Sewage disposal in the Musi-River, India: water qualityremediation through irrigation infrastructure

Ensink, J., H,J.; Scott, C., A.; Brooker, S.; Cairncross, S.
Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 2010; 24:65-77
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009):


Modelling latrine diffusion in Benin: towards a community typology of demand for improved sanitation in developing countries.

Jenkins, M.W.; Cairncross, S.;
J Water Health, 2010; 8(1):166-83
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 1.469


Relationship (or its lack) between population and a water and sanitation service: a study of users' perception in Vitória (ES) Brazil.

Ramos da Silva, S.; Heller, L.; de Campos Valadares, J.; Cairncross, S.;
J Water Health, 2010; 8(4):764-78
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 1.469


Sampling strategies to measure the prevalence of common recurrent infections in longitudinal studies.

Schmidt, W.P.; Genser, B.; Barreto, M.L.; Clasen, T.; Luby, S.P.; Cairncross, S.; Chalabi, Z.;
Emerg Themes Epidemiol, 2010; 7(1):5
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009):


Ascariasis and handwashing.

Fung, I.C.; Cairncross, S.;
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2009; 103(3):215-22
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.553


Ascariasis and handwashing

Fung, I.C.H.; Cairncross, S.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2009; 103(3):215-222
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.553


Weight-for-age z-score as a proxy marker for diarrhoea in epidemiological studies.

Schmidt, W.P.; Boisson, S.; Genser, B.; Barreto, M.; Baisley, K.; Filteau, S.; Cairncross, S.;
J Epidemiol Community Health, 2009;
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 3.043


Household water treatment in poor populations: is there enough evidence for scaling up now?

Schmidt, W.P.; Cairncross, S.;
Environ Sci Technol, 2009; 43(4):986-92
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 4.63


Recent diarrhoeal illness and risk of lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 years.

Schmidt, W.P.; Cairncross, S.; Barreto, M.L.; Clasen, T.; Genser, B.;
Int J Epidemiol, 2009; 38(3):766-72
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 5.262


Certification of disease eradication: lessons from dracunculiasis

Tayeh, A.; Cairncross, S.
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2009; 14(12):1431-1436
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.328


Should data from demographic surveillance systems be made more widely available to researchers.

Chandramohan, D.; Shibuya, K.; Setel, P.; Cairncross, S.; Lopez, A.D.; Murray, C.J.; Zaba, B.; Snow, R.W.; Binka, F.;
PLoS Med, 2008; 5(2):e57
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 13.05


Interventions to improve excreta disposal for the prevention of diarrhoea. (Protocol for a Cochrane Review)

Clasen, T.; Bostoen, K.; Schmidt, W.; Boisson, S.; Fung, I.; Jenkins, M.; Scott, B.; Sugden, S.; Cairncross, S.
The Cochrane Library, 2008; (2)
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research


A hierarchical model for studying risk factors for childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study in a middle-income country.

Ferrer, S.R.; Strina, A.; Jesus, S.R.; Ribeiro, H.C.; Cairncross, S.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Barreto, M.L.;
Int J Epidemiol, 2008; 37(4):805-15
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 5.262


Impact of a city-wide sanitation intervention in a large urban centre on social, environmental and behavioural determinants of childhood diarrhoea: analysis of two cohort studies

Genser, B.; Strina, A.; Dos Santos, L.A.; Teles, C.A.; Prado, M.S.; Cairncross, S.; Barreto, M.L.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 2008; 37(4):831-840
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 5.262


Effect of city-wide sanitation programme on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhoea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies

Barreto, M.L.; Genser, B.; Strina, A.; Teixeira, M.G.; Assis, A.M.O.; Rego, R.F.; Teles, C.A.; Prado, M.S.; Matos, S.M.A.; Santos, D.N.; Dos Santos, L.A.; Cairncross, S.
Lancet, 2007; 370(9599):1622-1628
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 30.758


Impact on diarrhoea of a city-wide sanitation programme in Northeast Brazil

Barreto, ML; Genser, B; Strina, A; Teixeira, MG; Assis, AMO; Rego, RF; Teles, CA; Prado, MS; Matos, SMA; Santos, DN; dos Santos, LA; Cairncross, S.;
Lancet, 2007; 370(9599):1622-1628
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 30.758


Cost-effectiveness of water quality interventions for preventing diarrhoeal disease in developing countries.

Clasen, T.; Cairncross, S.; Haller, L.; Bartram, J.; Walker, D.;
J Water Health, 2007; 5(4):599-608
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 1.469


Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clasen, T.; Schmidt, W.P.; Rabie, T.; Roberts, I.; Cairncross, S.;
BMJ, 2007; 334(7597):782
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 13.66


Waste stabilization pond performance in Pakistan and its implications for wastewater use in agriculture

Ensink, J.; Hoek, W.V.; Mara, D.; Cairncross, S.
Urban Water Journal, 2007; 4(4):261 - 267
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research


How often do you wash your hands? A review of studies of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003.

Fung, I.C.; Cairncross, S.;
Int J Environ Health Res, 2007; 17(3):161-83
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 1.066


Exposure to the risk of dengue virus infection in an urban setting: ecological versus individual heterogeneity

Teixeira, M.; Barreto, M.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, L.; Morato, V.; Vasconcelos, P.; Cairncross, S.
Dengue Bulletin, 2007; 31:36-46
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research


Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

Clasen, T.; Roberts, I.; Rabie, T.; Schmidt, W.; Cairncross, S.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2006; 3(3):CD004794
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 5.653


Effectiveness of handwashing in preventing SARS: a review

Fung, I.C.H.; Cairncross, S.
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2006; 11(11):1749-58
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.328


What causes sustainable changes in hygiene behaviour? A cross-sectional study from Kerala, India.

Cairncross, S.; Shordt, K.; Zacharia, S.; Govindan, B.K.;
Soc Sci Med, 2005; 61(10):2212-20
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.71


Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating interventions, programmes, and policies

Ezzati, M.; Utzinger, J.; Cairncross, S.; Cohen, A. J.; Singer, B. H.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2005; 59(1):15-22
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 3.043


Revisiting the tsunami: health consequences of flooding.

Morgan, O.; Ahern, M.; Cairncross, S.;
PLoS Med, 2005; 2(6):e184
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 13.05


Community-based surveillance: a pilot study from rural Cambodia

Oum, S.; Chandramohan, D.; Cairncross, S.
Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2005; 10(7):689-697
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.328


Asymptomatic giardiasis and growth in young children; a longitudinal study in Salvador, Brazil

Prado, M. S.; Cairncross, S.; Strina, A.; Barreto, M. L.; Oliveira-Assis, A. M.; Rego, S.
Parasitology, 2005; 131(Pt 1):51-6
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.316


Childhood diarrhoea symptoms, management and duration: observations from a longitudinal community study.

Strina, A.; Cairncross, S.; Prado, M.S.; Teles, C.A.; Barreto, M.L.;
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2005; 99(6):407-16
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.553


Creating demand for sanitation and hygiene through Community Health Clubs: A cost-effective intervention in two districts in Zimbabwe.

Waterkeyn, J.; Cairncross, S.;
Soc Sci Med, 2005; 61(9):1958-70
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.71


ASSESSING WATER-RELATED RISK FACTORS FOR BURULI ULCER: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN GHANA.

Aiga, H.; Amano, T.; Cairncross, S.; Domako, J.A.; Nanas, O.K.; Coleman, S.;
Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2004; 71(4):387-92
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.795


REDUCING DIARRHEA THROUGH THE USE OF HOUSEHOLD-BASED CERAMIC WATER FILTERS: A RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED TRIAL IN RURAL BOLIVIA.

Clasen, T.F.; Brown, J.; Collin, S.; Suntura, O.; Cairncross, S.;
Am J Trop Med Hyg , 2004; 70(6):651-7
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.795


Is there an association between bacteriological drinking water quality and childhood diarrhoea in developing countries?

Jensen, P. K.; Jayasinghe, G.; van der Hoek, W.; Cairncross, S.; Dalsgaard, A.
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2004; :1210
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.328


Environmental interventions and the pattern of geohelminth infections in Salvador, Brazil.

Moraes, L.R.; Cairncross, S.;
Parasitology, 2004; 129(Pt 2):223-32
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.316


Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil

Moraes, L.R.S.; Cancio, J.A.; Cairncross, S.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2004; 98(4):197-204
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.553


Sanitation in the developing world: current status and future solutions

Cairncross, S.
Int J Environ Health Res, 2003; 13 Suppl 1:S123-31
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 1.066


Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review

Curtis, V.; Cairncross, S.
Lancet Infect Dis, 2003; 3(5):275-81
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 15.583 ·


Effect of chlorination of drinking-water on water quality and childhood diarrhoea in a village in Pakistan

Jensen, P. K.; Ensink, J. H.; Jayasinghe, G.; van der Hoek, W.; Cairncross, S.; Dalsgaard, A.
J Health Popul Nutr, 2003; 21(1):26-31
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 0.859


Impact of drainage and sewerage on diarrhoea in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil

Moraes, L. R. S.; Cancio, J. A.; Cairncross, A. M.; Huttly, S. R. A.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2003; 97(2):153-158
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.553


Risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis in pre-school children in the city of Salvador, Brazil

Prado, M. S.; Strina, A.; Barreto, M. L.; Oliveira-Assis, A. M.; Paz, L. M.; Cairncross, S.
Epidemiology and Infection, 2003; 131(2):899-906
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.365


Childhood diarrhea and observed hygiene behavior in Salvador, Brazil

Strina, A.; Cairncross, S.; Barreto, M. L.; Larrea, C.; Prado, M. S.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 2003; 157(11):1032-1038
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 5.589


Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative

Cairncross, S.; Muller, R.; Zagaria, N.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 2002; 15(2):223-46
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 14.691


The intensity of transmission of hepatitis A and heterogeneities in socio-environmental risk factors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

de Almeida, L. M.; Amaku, M.; Azevedo, R. S.; Cairncross, S.; Massad, E.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2002; 96(6):605-10
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.553 ·


Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in- house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries

Jensen, P. K.; Ensink, J. H. J.; Jayasinghe, G.; van der Hoek, W.; Cairncross, S.; Dalsgaard, A.
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2002; 7(7):604-9
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.328 ·


Dynamics of dengue virus circulation: a silent epidemic in a complex urban area

Teixeira, M. D.; Barreto, M. L.; Costa, M. D. N.; Ferreira, L. D. A.; Vasconcelos, P. F. C.; Cairncross, S.
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2002; 7(9):757-62
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.328


The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors

Almeida, L. M.; Werneck, G. L.; Cairncross, S.; Coeli, C. M.; Costa, M. C. E.; Coletty, P. E.
Epidemiology and Infection, 2001; 127(2):327-33
DOI · PubMed · WoS · Abstract · WWW · Full Record · Update from Pubmed · Research Online·Journal Article - Original Research · IF(2009): 2.365 ·


Limitations of irrigation water quality guidlines from a multiple use perspective

Jensen, P. K.; Matsuno, Y.; van der Hoek, W.; Cairncross, S.
Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 2001; 15(2):117-128
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